Animal models of tardive dyskinesia--a review.

Tardive dyskinesia is a serious motor side effect of long term neuroleptic therapy, with an unknown pathophysiological basis. The leading hypothesis of the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia includes dopamine receptor supersensitivity, GABAergic hypofunction, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Many preclinical models have been developed to identify the underlying pathological processes of tardive dyskinesia, but none has yet produced a parsimonious results. A wide range of animal models, viz. Homologous, analogous and correlational models have been developed to explore the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia. 

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